Sperms are the male reproductive gametes or sex cells that combine with the female sex cells (ovum) in a process known as fertilization and then develop to form a fetus.
They have a unique role in our body. The male reproductive organs produce sperms through a process called spermatogenesis. The sperms contain chromosomes which determine the gender of the baby. It includes the male X chromosome and the Y chromosome. When the Y chromosome combines with the X chromosome in the ovum of the female, the baby will be a male, and the vice Verser is true. It is the male who determines the gender of the baby but not the female. Males have x and Y chromosome while females have only xx chromosomes while.
Spermatogenesis occurs on the seminiferous tubules in the testes. These seminiferous tubules can approximately produce 10 million sperms per day. This mass production of sperms is made possible by the massive population of actively dividing and actively sustaining germ cells which in turn become gametes. These germ cells are known as spermatogonia.
A baby sperm which is formed is nourished by a nurse cell in the testicle, where it then grows a tail. After maturity, it is released to the epididymis where it learns how to swim and stored for an ejaculation. A functional sperm has a tadpole look, but unlike the tadpole, the sperm has three essential components. It has the head, body and the tail. The head of the sperm has a nucleus which contains a haploid genome.
The primary job of the sperm is to get the genome into the ovum. The nucleus of the sperm contains the DNA. An acrosome is a structure that forms a cap of the most of the nucleus of the sperm cell. Acrosome penetrates the outer layers of the ovum cell to ensure that the sperm gets inside the cell. The tail of the sperm which is a long whip-like cellular is used for the locomotion of the sperm. It lashes back and forth to ensure the sperm is propelling forward.
The tail of the sperm is surrounded by some mitochondria which provide energy in the form of ATP for the tail to lash back and forth. Sperms are carried out by semen which acts as a transmitting agent. Sperm is approximately 0.05 mm long, and it has to propel 152 mm from the base of the human cervix to the fallopian tube to carry out fertilization. Because they are produced in large number, it is only the fastest sperm that fertilizes the ovum. The quickest sperm is believed to cover 30-60 minutes overcoming the doubting obstacles on the way.
It is the process through which the sperms are formed in the testicles. This process starts in the human brain where the brain hypothalamus monitors the blood testosterone levels. If the testosterone levels drop down, the hypothalamus triggers the secretion of the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone which flows down the body to the Pituitary Glands causing them to release Luteinizing Hormone and the Follicle Stimulating Hormone.
LH flows to the testicles making them stimulate Leydig cells to discharge testosterone. The work of the FSH is to concentrate the testosterone to the seminiferous tubes where the sperms are produced. Inside the tubules, there are germ cells which undergo meiosis where the parent cell DNA is split into two halves and rearranged into new combinations.
All these new cells become sperm. The testosterone which is concentrated on the tubules is absorbed by the Sertoli cells. Once the sperms are fully developed, they are pushed to the back of the tubules to create space for new sperms. Sperms can live in the epididymis for two weeks. If not ejaculated from the body within that time, the sperms die and are reabsorbed by the body.
HOW GENES ARE PASSED ON.
Sperms are used to transfer genes from the parents. Everyone has 46 chromosomes in each body cell that contain their genes. Each chromosome is paired, that means there are 23 sets of chromosomes. A child is given 23 sets of the chromosome by the father and the other 23 set by the mother. Each cell in the body has 23 sets of chromosomes.
Any alteration of the genes which are transferred through the sperms can cause a change of color of the child, baldness and skin texture. Upon the creation of the sperm, DNA is taken through two steps. The pairs of the chromosomes are brought together, cut and resembled that some of the chromosomes have mixed set of genes from both mother and father. The pairs of the chromosomes are then divided so that one chromosome can go to each sperm cell and the other cell goes to the sperm cell.
Body temperature is put into consideration when dealing with sperms. Sperms require an optimum temperature of 93.5 degrees. The scrotum is used to regulate the testis temperature. The outer layer is thin to allow free movement of air in and out of the testis. The testis is located outside the body.
Sperms require specific nutrients for sperm replication and sperm maturation. Some of this nutrients include coenzyme q10 which converts food into energy, Folic Acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Zinc. Zinc acts as the building block for the production of testosterone, semen, and sperms.
Sperms are believed to be an antidepressant. People who have sex without condoms are said to have less depression than those who use condoms. Semen contains melatonin which is a chemical, and thus it induces sleep and relaxation. Experts have given the reason why men die at a lower age than their average ladies. A lot of energy is required to create sperm. It is believed that creation of a sperm takes half part of our life. Men an advised to reduce the ejaculation frequency to live longer, age slower and appear reasonable.
It has been established that one teaspoon of semen contains over 200 proteins which are essential in our body and other useful vitamins. Some of the mineral available are vitamin c calcium, chlorine, and citric acid. This minerals and vitamins are determined by the age and health of the male. Taking one teaspoon of sperms helps to boost your immunity.
People ejaculate when the sperms are in store and are ready to be released out of the body. The act of ejaculating reduces the risk of having prostate cancer. “High ejaculation frequency was related to decreased risk of total prostate cancer.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. This implies that whether one is doing sex alone or with a partner as long as he/ she is ejaculating will minimize the risk of suffering from prostate cancer.
Taking a teaspoon of semen can reduce the chances of having a blood pressure. Women who tend to swallow their partner’s male gametes during oral sex tend to experience little preeclampsia during their pregnancy. This is a condition that leads to super high blood pressure during pregnancy.
People should learn how to keep their sperms in high quality. Sperms quality peaks at winter and early spring. Stress affects the quality sperm. Quality sperms are leading to conceiving of a healthy fetus. Men should consume foods rich in antioxidant lycopene. Doing exercise also boost the sperm quality and libido of the men.